Dr Kalam oversaw the Pokhran-II nuclear tests, which propelled India into the Nuclear Powers Club.
APJ Abdul Kalam was an aerospace scientist and a gifted educator who served as India's 11th President from 2002 to 2007, earning the nickname "People's President." On July 27, 2015, Kalam collapsed during a presentation at the Indian Institute of Management (IIM)-Shillong and died of an apparent heart attack.
On the anniversary of APJ Abdul Kalam's death, these are some of his most recognised contributions in the field of Science:
Dr Kalam's hard work and efforts for over a decade made it feasible for India to have its own indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) at a time when it was no less than a dream for the country. Kalam built the SLV III rocket, which was used to launch the Rohini satellite into Earth's orbit. It was also India's first foray into space.
Dr Kalam took charge of developing indigenous guided missiles for the Defence Research and Development Organisation after working for the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) for over two decades (DRDO).
Dr Kalam was the man behind the creation and deployment of the Agni and Prithvi missiles, earning him the nickname "India's Missile Man."
Between 1992 and 1999, Dr Kalam served as the Scientific Adviser to India's Defense Minister, during which time India proceeded with the nuclear tests at Pokhran.
He was also in charge of the Pokhran-II nuclear tests, which propelled India into the Nuclear Powers Club. It was formerly only available in five countries: the United States, China, the United Kingdom, France, and Russia.
Dr Kalam worked on the creation of India's first coronary stent with cardiologist Dr B.Soma Raju. The stent, known as the Kalam-Raju-Stent, was created in 1994. It resulted in a 50% drop in the cost of imported cardiac stents in India. This stent's updated variants are currently available on the market.
Dr Kalam has been involved in avionics since graduating from the Madras Institute of Technology, where he specialised in Aeronautical Engineering. He was a key figure in the country's Light Combat Aircraft programme, and he was also the first Indian Head of State to fly a fighter jet.
Following the success of the Kalam-Raju-Stent, Dr Kalam and Dr Soma Raju created a tablet computer in 2012 to provide healthcare professionals caring for disadvantaged people in rural India with the tools they need to respond to emergency medical crises.